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Why Is Gene Editing the Next Major Thing in the Food Industry?

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Gene Editing

CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas9) gene-editing technology is the most recent breakthrough in food improvement. It has a lot of big ramifications for developed world agriculture and much-needed food security improvements. CRISPR and gene editing tools pose a significant legal and regulatory problem for the global food business, as well as a significant scientific opportunity. The possibility of directly targeting and subsequently changing genomic sections in plants is exciting thanks to advances in genome editing tools. Genome editing has the potential to expand our ability to produce a significant amount of potential in applied biotechnology and its implications for enhanced global food production.

CRISPR gene editing is a molecular biology genetic engineering approach for altering the genomes of living organisms. It’s based on a reduced form of the CRISPR-Cas9 antiviral defence mechanism found in bacteria. The Cas9 nuclease, which is entangled with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA), may be sent into a cell and cut the cell’s genome at the desired site, allowing existing genes to be deleted and/or new ones to be inserted in vivo (in living organisms). Furthermore, the first successful application of CRISPR was in 2013, and it has since generated a lot of interest and investment. It’s the simplest, most accessible, most precise way of genetic manipulation right now.

Gene Editing Possibilities

In medicine, gene editing has the potential to cure genetic ailments like some types of heart disease and cancer, as well as a rare vision loss disorder. In agriculture, the approach can generate plants that are not only more productive, such as Lippman’s tomatoes, but also more nutritious and resistant to drought and pests, qualities that could help crops withstand the increasingly harsh weather patterns projected in the future years.

For the past 25 years, agricultural scientists have been using biotechnology to improve plants by transferring genes from one plant (or bacteria) species to another. These GMOs have allowed farmers in Hawaii, for example, to spray more herbicides without harming their crops or to develop disease-resistant papayas. Despite the fact that science has yet to show that eating GMOs has any negative effects on human health, they have been the subject of consumer boycotts and strict government regulations in Europe and some U.S. states, sparked by concerns about the big corporations that create GMOs and the consequences of mixing genes from two species. However, modern gene-editing techniques like Crispr (and others) can achieve the same results without transferring new genes from one organism to another.  Gene editing is also more straightforward, less expensive, and faster than GMO production. Because gene editing is relatively simple for those with proper training and basic lab facilities and is not tightly controlled by a few companies, some experts believe it could allow developing countries to grow drought-resistant corn or nutrient-fortified vegetables without having to purchase expensive seeds from large multinational corporations. Crispr is also faster than growers, crossing generations of plant species one by one until they achieve the desired trait.

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The Advancement of CRISPR Technology Has Recognized Genome Editing

The discovery of CRISPR in the immune system of prokaryotes The CRISPR system is a sophisticated adaptive immune system found in bacteria and archaea that protects them from bacteriophages and foreign plasmid capture. It was discovered in the genome of E. coli in 1987 and named by the Dutch scientist who discovered the CRISPR-associated (Cas) genes.

Three distinct study groups discovered in 2005 that the short sequences of numerous CRISPR spacers were mostly similar to extra chromosomal DNA sequences, implying a link between CRISPR and particular immunity. Nearly a decade later, CRISPR-Cas was successfully developed into an efficient tool to edit human, animal, and plant genomes, allowing it to be widely applied in sectors as diverse as pharmacology, animal domestication, and food research.

CRISPR - Biotech Stock after $ 1.9 Trillion Stimulus - Genomics Daily.com

CRISPR at Work: Boosting Everyday Foods

In crops, such as some examples below, CRISPR can impact yield, disease resistance, taste, and other traits.

Chocolate: Scientists are working to enhance the cacao plant’s immune system to resist a virus devastating West Africa’s crops.

Bananas: Gene editing is being tested to produce a more adaptable variety that can fight a deadly fungus attacking the global commercial supply.

Wine: CRISPR may be a protection against powdery mildew that interferes with the sugar levels required for wine-quality grapes.

Coffee: To escape the costly process of removing caffeine, which can also affect flavor, a bean variety has been edited to be naturally decaffeinated.

Rice: Researchers developed a variety that produces 25 to 30 percent more yield without compromising its tolerance to tough climate conditions.

Tomatoes: Geneticists identified 13 critical flavor notes in heirlooms. They may be added to developed varieties to increase flavor.

Corn: Scientists recognized a gene in a native variety that produces more grain under drought conditions; it’ll be added to modern varieties.

Mushrooms: Pennsylvania State University traced undesirable brown spots to a melanin gene; with a tweak, appearance and shelf life boosted.

Wheat: Scientists in Spain and the U.S. are modifying wheat to produce strains considerably lower in the gluten proteins that cause celiac disease.

Gene Editing in Food Production: Future Trends and Risks

The benefits of gene editing are potentially substantial. It provides an opportunity to edit crops so we can feed the world with less land and with a lower environmental impact, even as the effects of climate change threaten food production. It could also have health benefits for consumers and provide multiple economic opportunities.

Environmental Benefits

Higher yields with less land and fewer inputs. For example, tomatoes could be grown to have twice the number of branches and thus twice as many tomatoes. We can also overcome waste by producing potatoes that are more resistant to bruising. As a result, we may need to use fewer resources, such as land, water, and fertilizer, to produce the same or higher yield.

Greater resistance to adverse weather conditions. Climate change is and is expected to continue to lead to more extreme weather patterns such as floods and droughts. Crops could be edited to be more resilient to extreme weather patterns and thus could be a critical part of climate change adaptation.

The increase in disease was insensitive for both crops and animals. Crops could be grown to be more resistant to disease. Crops can also be grown to be more resistant to pests, which means we can overcome pesticide use and reduce waste. Animals can also be bred to be more resistant to disease, which means we could outgrow the use of antibiotics.

Health Benefits

Intercepting allergens and producing more healthy produce. Crops could be grown to have decreased gluten, or soybeans could be grown to be lower in unhealthy fats. Japan has sanctioned a gene-edited “super tomato”, which has benefits for heart health.

Enhanced Animal Welfare

Gene editing also enables breeders to launch the latest traits to animals. Animals could be bred to better withstand disease, and we could even breed hornless cattle so they cannot hurt other animals they are kept alongside.

Economic Benefits

Decreased costs for farmers and cheaper food for consumers. As gene editing can make farming more efficient by augmenting yields and guarding crops against environmental pressures and disease, it could decline production costs, which could have a knock-on effect on the cost of food for consumers.

A transformed political economy. Many of the first-generation commercial GM crops were designed by large agribusinesses as these companies had the funds to invest in labs and greenhouses and were able to obtain patents. Hence, they were able to dominate the market. Gene editing may open opportunities for emerging economies to grow crops without buying expensive seeds from large multinational firms. This is because it is relatively easy for those without proper training and high-tech lab facilities to use this technology. It may also allow start-ups to compete with multinational agribusinesses.

Disadvantages And Perceived Risks?

Like almost all technologies, gene editing could be utilized in good or bad ways. Even though most scientists now agree on the opportunities introduced by gene editing, some political and ethical challenges remain.

Unintended Consequences.

Gene editing can be described as a more accurate and controllable form of genetic engineering, as tools like CRISPR can be programmed to target a specific site in the genome. Nevertheless, research has found that CRISPR can create unintended effects at the target site and in other places along the genome. Yet scientists say that these issues can be controlled through carefully programming the transformed organisms to ensure the alterations are as desired. The risks can be managed much more carefully than in traditional or selective animal breeding, which has been prepared for hundreds of years and is subject to little regulation.

Knock-On Effects.

Some actors like Beyond GM dispute that gene editing could result in some undesirable knock-on effects if not properly regulated. For instance, if animals are made immune to certain diseases, it might motivate farmers to keep more animals in smaller spaces, which would have a poor impact on animal welfare. Nevertheless, many scientists acknowledge that gene editing is much more probably to have positive impacts on animal welfare, for example by prohibiting diseases such as swine flu.

Ethical Considerations.

The same technologies used to produce gene-edited foods could be utilized for other potentially damaging uses. Even though gene editing can be used positively in health care, for example, to produce new cancer and blood disease treatments it raises difficult ethical questions such as whether there will be a restriction to the conditions that gene editing is used to treat and fears over creating designer babies. There are also ethical questions about the way the scientific research supporting the application of CRISPR in these areas is carried out, and the role of the scientist carrying out the gene editing, and their liability in the case of an accident.

These challenges and risks are not unconquerable if regulated properly. Traditional animal breeding also presents risks, yet is not subject to the same regulation as gene editing. Governments should target a flexible, outcome-based regulatory approach to protect against undesirable effects such as keeping animals in poor conditions while allowing promising gene-editing applications to advance when they are demonstrably safe.

Recent Developments in the CRISPR Technology

Recent developments in the Crispr technology that can be directly executed in disease-resistant crop production, for instance, generating gene-edited dicotyledonous plants through de novo meristem induction and removing time-consuming tissue culture steps, using temperature-tolerant CRISPR/LbCas12a to increase the targeting and efficiency, allowing large DNA insertions (up to 2 kb) with precision in rice, and applying heat-inducible CRISPR system to grow the efficiency of gene targeting in maize. Chromosome engineering in crops is another stimulating recent development allowing controlled restructuring of plant genomes and breaking genetic linkage via somatic chromosome engineering. Taken together, these developments would further streamline the transfer of resistance genes to elite cultivars.

UK Sanctioned Europe’s First Field Trials-Edited Wheat- the UK government has approved Europe’s first field trials of Crispr-edited wheat. The experiments will be supervised in Hertfordshire by the agricultural science institute Rothamsted Research. The Rothamsted project is aiming to create wheat with lower levels of amino acid asparagine. When the bread is baked or toasted, asparagine is transformed into acrylamide a carcinogenic contaminant that requires close monitoring under EU law. Laboratory and greenhouse studies have already shown Crispr can be used to create wheat plants that produce much lower levels of asparagine. Rothamsted Research says that the new five-year project will examine ‘how the plants fare in the field and whether asparagine concentrations continue to be low in grain produced under field conditions. The edited plants will be grown alongside wheat in which asparagine synthesis has been altered using older chemical-induced mutation methods to allow for direct comparison.

In the UK, gene-edited crops in which minor alterations are made utilizing precise techniques like Crispr have treated the same way under law as transgenic organisms whose genomes include DNA introduced from other species. The current regulations essentially ban bringing any of these products to market. Nevertheless, the government is currently carrying out a consultation on the issue that may lead to new legislation allowing farmers to plant gene-edited crops.

Concluding Remarks

With further advances in CRISPR technology and the establishment of an evaluation system, more economies might be willing to promote an optimistic and inclusive attitude toward CRISPR-edited crops. As researchers, in addition to further scrutinizing CRISPR technology to ensure maximum benefit while decreasing risks, we need to be concerned with public acceptance. Most importantly, the basic features of this technology need to be explained sufficiently well to enable rational public discourse, growing public confidence in the safety and advantages of CRISPR-edited crops. Governments might then express a laissez faire attitude after attaining strong public trust.

Key Companies Associated with the CRISPR Technology

Toolgen Inc, MilliporeSigma, Cellectis, DowDuPont, MPEG-LA, Caribou Biosciences, Intellia Therapeutics, CRISPR Therapeutics, ERS Genomics, Casebia Therapeutics, Editas Medicine, Agilent Technologies, Cellecta, Inc., GeneCopoeia, Inc., GenScript, New England Biolabs, Horizon Discovery Group, Synthego Corporation, Integrated DNA Technologies (IDT), Merck KGaA, Origene Technologies, Inc., and others.


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Craig Hill

Craig began writing for prgazette.com in 2005, resulting in engaging and fascinating editorials about science and wellness progress. Craig’s inspirational and accurate science and health articles have made her very popular with the viewers. Craig graduated at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign with a Bachelor of Arts degree at October in 2004. He then completed a science college internship in Fermilab, followed using a communications internship in Caterpillar. Ever since that moment, he has been writing in an independent capability for several science, health, technology, along with other books.

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