Bone Grafts is a surgical procedure that replaces missing bone in order to repair bone fractures that are extremely complex, pose a significant health risk to the patient, or fail to heal properly. Some small or acute fractures can be cured without bone grafting, but the risk is greater for large fractures like compound fractures. Bone generally has the ability to regenerate completely but requires a very small fracture space or some sort of scaffold to do so. Bone grafts may be autologous (bone harvested from the patient’s own body, often from the iliac crest), allograft (cadaveric bone usually obtained from a bone bank), or synthetic (often made of hydroxyapatite or other naturally occurring and biocompatible substances) with similar mechanical properti9es to bone. Most bone grafts are expected to be reabsorbed and replaced as the natural bone heals over a few months’ time.
Bone grafting helps repair bones after a severe fracture or when they do not heal correctly. Grafting also fuses two adjoining bones to treat chronic pain. Many methods are available, including allograft, autograft and synthetic bone grafts. A bone graft is a procedure to apply bone tissue or similar substances to damaged bones. There are many methods, including allograft, autograft and synthetic bone grafting. Your healthcare provider will select the option that’s right for you based on your health history and why you need a graft. It can sometimes take a while to recover from this procedure. But your new bones should stay strong and healthy for years to come.
What type of bone graft might be?
There are several bone grafting methods, including:
Allograft: This method uses bone tissue from another person (donor). Public health services have strict regulations on how tissues are handled and the bone tissue is cleaned and processed (sterilized) to ensure the safety of the recipient. This type of graft is common in spinal fusion surgery. It provides a framework around which healthy Bone Grafts tissue can grow.
Autograft: An autograft uses a sample of your bone tissue. The tissue typically comes from the top of your hip bone (iliac crest). The surgeon makes an incision to obtain the bone tissue. The benefit of using your own tissue is that it increases the chances of successful fusion, but the amount of bone tissue that can be collected is limited. Additionally, you may have pain at the site where the bone graft is collected.
Bone marrow aspirate: Marrow is the spongy substance inside bones. It contains stem and progenitor cells that can help bone fractures heal. Using a needle, the surgeon gets a bone marrow sample from the hip bone (iliac crest). This bone marrow aspirate is used alone or mixed with other bone grafts to enhance bone healing for allograft procedures.
Synthetic bone graft: This type of graft uses artificially produced materials made from a variety of porous substances. Some also contain proteins that support bone development.
Bone Grafts is an extensive practice in dentistry with an increasing trend, where implant failure due to the poor fixation or loosening of the implanted grafts is a common complication. To reduce these complications, containment materials are employed to increase the contact interface with the graft and to facilitate cellular in-growth and targeted high quality bone formation, which results in a better fixation and stabilization of the bone graft material. Initially, non-resorbable synthetic polymers, such as polytetrafluoroethylene, were employed with this goal, however, they require a second surgical intervention for removal, which unavoidably increases patients’ distress and expenditure.
Despite the huge scientific efforts to develop safe and functional bone substitutes, bone tissue grafts remain the gold standard in clinical practice. The prevalence and market size of bone repair and regeneration encourage the development of therapeutic technologies to overcome limitations of bone tissue grafts and fill clinical gaps in a wide spectrum of applications (e.g., from traumatology to dentistry). Yet again, only few products have demonstrated safety and efficacy in clinical setting. Their success has been largely attributed to the precise understanding of the mechanism of action of the various device components and their compliance with regulatory frameworks. In fact, this is key in translating new concepts from lab-bench to bedside, overcoming regulatory hurdles, and normative framework changes, whilst providing a safe and functional therapy.