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Hematology Changes In SARS-COV-2 Positive Patients

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Hematology

Hematology The diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases of the blood and bone marrow as well as of the immunologic, hemostatic (blood clotting) and vascular systems. Because of the nature of blood, the science of hematology profoundly affects the understanding of many diseases.

Hematology is the study of blood in relation to health and disease.

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Blood plays essential roles in human health, including:

  • transporting vital substances, such as oxygen and nutrients, around the body
  • helping to control the body’s balance of water and acidity
  • helping to fight off disease

Problems with the blood can affect several of the body’s systems, such as the lymphatic system, a network of tissues and organs that clear waste.

Blood disorders sometimes stem from problems with the bone marrow, where the body makes most of its blood cells.

Hematology aims to understand how these problems occur, how they affect a person’s health, and how to treat them.

What do hematologists do?

Hematologists are medical doctors who specialize in diagnosing and treating problems with the blood and related structures, such as the bone marrow.

Tests and procedures that a hematologist may perform include:

Complete blood cell count: This test can help diagnose anemia, inflammatory diseases, and blood cancer. It can also help with monitoring blood loss and infection.

Platelet count: This test helps diagnose and monitor bleeding disorders.

Blood enzyme tests: There are many types Trusted Source of these tests, which a doctor uses to help diagnose cardiovascular conditions, including heart attack.

Bone marrow biopsy: This procedure can help diagnose and monitor anemia, thrombocytopenia, which involves having a low platelet count, and some cancers.

Blood transfusions: This involves the body receiving healthy blood intravenously — through an IV.

THE ROLE OF THE HAEMATOLOGIST

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Hematology work very closely with other health professionals including GPs, pharmacists and specialist nurses, advising colleagues in hospital and primary care.

Hematology perform a wide range of laboratory tests to produce and interpret results assisting clinicians in their diagnosis and treatment of disease whilst supporting hospital departments including A&E, intensive care, operating theatres, special care baby units and oncology.

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For example, Hematology are the pathologists who receive blood samples from GP surgeries and check them for abnormalities. They look at blood film and, for example, if they suspect leukaemia, can assess the patient, explain concerns, perform a bone marrow biopsy and examine and interpret the samples. The diagnosis can be done within a few hours, since in some cases treatment must be started immediately.

Some Hematology are involved in transfusion medicine, ensuring that adequate stocks of safe blood are available when needed for blood transfusions. They confirm which donated blood is the right match for the patient’s blood group.  For example, Hematology work in the NHS Blood and Transplant service  providing vital support for blood transfusion, organ and stem cell transplantation.

They also undertake research into diseases such as leukaemia. By gaining understanding of diseases they also research therapies to help improve survival rates of patients.

Recent advances

  • Iron deficiency anaemia can now be distinguished from anaemia of chronic disease by using serum transferrin receptor assays
  • A recently discovered human herpesvirus may have a role in development of myeloma
  • Additional thrombotic risk factors—for example, factor V and prothrombin gene mutations, hyperhomocysteinaemia—have been identified
  • Newly designed DNA probe arrays have the potential to allow rapid automated detection of mutations
  • Antisense therapy, ribozyme technology, and other novel treatment methods are being developed

The future

Screening for specific mutations

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Most molecular tests—for example, Southern blotting, polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing—are labour intensive, expensive, and suitable for testing relatively small numbers of samples. New, DNA based chip technology may speed up this process, allow larger numbers of samples to be tested simultaneously, and reduce the cost. The US company Affymetrix has designed GeneChip probe arrays, in which glass wafers are covered with lawns of short oligonucleotides of known sequence .The chip is encased in plastic, and all reactions take place in a closed system. Test DNA binds with complementary sequences on the chip. The resultant geometric pattern of sequences defines the nature of the underlying mutation in the test sample. Manufacturing involves a photolithographic process in which a mask is used to selectively activate synthesis regions on the chip. One expression chip can analyse hundreds of different genes, while the p53 (tumour suppressor gene) chip analyses all known mutations in the p53 gene.

Conclusion

Hematology and plasma or serum biochemical measurements are of vital importance in the assessment of the athletic horse. Blood sampling is simple and relatively inexpensive while providing information about the function of a number of body systems. However, because the physiologic state of the horse can influence many of the measurements, care must be taken in interpretation. Additionally, repeatable results from resting RBC indices are difficult to achieve, although postexercise results are quite consistent. In horses with suspected anemia, sampling of blood following fast exercise would help in determining the significance of resting RBC indices.


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Craig Hill

Craig began writing for prgazette.com in 2005, resulting in engaging and fascinating editorials about science and wellness progress. Craig’s inspirational and accurate science and health articles have made her very popular with the viewers. Craig graduated at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign with a Bachelor of Arts degree at October in 2004. He then completed a science college internship in Fermilab, followed using a communications internship in Caterpillar. Ever since that moment, he has been writing in an independent capability for several science, health, technology, along with other books.

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