Definition of Osteoporosis:-
Osteoporosis causes bones to become weak and brittle so brittle that a fall or even mild stresses such as bending over or coughing can cause a fracture. Osteoporosis-related fractures most commonly occur in the hip, wrist or spine. Bone is living tissue that is constantly being broken down and replaced. Treatments for established osteoporosis may include exercise, vitamin and mineral supplements, and medications. Exercise and supplementation are often suggested to help you prevent . Weight-bearing, resistance and balance exercises are all important.
Who gets osteoporosis?
About 200 million people are estimated to have osteoporosis throughout the world. In the U.S., the figure is about 54 million people. Although occurs in both men and women, women are four times more likely to develop the disease than men. There are currently about two million men in the U.S. who have osteoporosis and some 12 million more who are at risk of developing the condition.
Osteoporosis is responsible for more than two million fractures each year, and this number continues to grow. There are steps you can take to prevent from ever occurring. Treatments can also slow the rate of bone loss if you do have osteoporosis.
What causes ?
When osteoporosis occurs, the “holes” in the “sponge” grow larger and more numerous, which weakens the inside of the bone. Bones support the body and protect vital organs. Bones also store calcium and other minerals. When the body needs calcium, it breaks down and rebuilds bone. This process, called bone remodeling, supplies the body with needed calcium while keeping the bones strong.
Up until about age 30, you normally build more bone than you lose. After age 35, bone breakdown occurs faster than bone buildup, which causes a gradual loss of bone mass. If you have osteoporosis, you lose bone mass at a greater rate. After menopause, the rate of bone breakdown occurs even more quickly.
What are the symptoms?
Usually, there are no symptoms of osteoporosis. That is why it is sometimes called a silent disease. However, you should watch out for the following things:
- Loss of height (getting shorter by an inch or more).
- Change in posture (stooping or bending forward).
- Shortness of breath (smaller lung capacity due to compressed disks).
- Bone fractures.
- Pain in the lower back.
Bisphosphonates are usually the first choice for osteoporosis treatment. These include: Alendronate (Fosamax), a weekly pill. Risedronate (Actonel), a weekly or monthly pill.
The goals for treating are to slow or stop bone loss and to prevent fractures. Your health care provider may recommend:
- Proper nutrition.
- Lifestyle changes.
- Fall prevention to help prevent fractures.
Recent Industry Developments Treatment
In October 2021, Radius Health, Inc. announced the findings of the ATOM study, which assessed abaloparatide 80 mcg subcutaneous (SC) for usage in males with osteoporosis. The study reported favorable topline findings, for instance, patients who received abaloparatide-SC had an average rise of 8.5 percent in LS BMD, whereas those who received the placebo had an average increase of 1.2 percent.
In July 2021, Sun Pharmaceuticals got a green signal from the Subject Expert Committee (SEC) of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) for the manufacturing and marketing of its Teriparatide injection in a pre-filled pen 600mcg/2.4 ml (Synthetic origin). Teriparatide is a recombinant hormone that is mainly administered for the treatment of osteoporosis in men and postmenopausal women who are at high risk of having a fracture.
Osteoporosis is a worldwide concern, causing more than 8.9 million fractures per year.109 The expected increase in medical visits, hospitalizations, and nursing home placements related to osteoporotic fractures will contribute to a substantial economic burden on health care systems. Thus, screening is important based on age, gender, and other risk factors. Bisphosphonates remain the first-line and most cost-effective treatment option for , but there is increasing concern about their long-term safety. Medications with novel mechanisms to treat can be expected in the near future.3–6 Although appropriate BMD screening and treatment with medication is important, is preventable with proper management of diet, lifestyle, and fall prevention interventions.